JavaScript (JS) is a programming language mostly used to dynamically script webpages on the client side, but it is also often utilized on the server-side, using packages such as Node.js. JavaScript should not be confused with the Java programming language. Both 'Java' and 'JavaScript' are trademarks or registered trademarks of Oracle in the U.S. and other countries. However, the two programming languages are significantly different in their syntax, semantics, and uses. Conceived as a server-side language by Brendan Eich (then employed by the Netscape Corporation), JavaScript soon came to Netscape Navigator 2.0 in September 1995. JavaScript enjoyed immediate success and Internet Explorer 3.0 introduced JavaScript support under the name JScript in August 1996. In November 1996, Netscape began working with ECMA International to make JavaScript an industry standard. Since then, the standardized JavaScript is called ECMAScript and specified under ECMA-262, whose latest (eight) edition is available in June 2017. JavaScript is mostly used in the browser, enabling developers to manipulate webpage content through the DOM, manipulate data with AJAX and IndexedDB, draw graphics with canvas, interact with the device running the browser through various APIs, and so forth. JavaScript is one of the world's most commonly-used languages, owing to the recent growth and performance improvement of APIs available in browsers. Recently, JavaScript's popularity has expanded even further through the successful Node.js platform - the most popular cross-platform JavaScript runtime environment outside the browser. Node.js allows developers to use JavaScript as a scripting language to automate things on a PC and build fully functional HTTP and Web Sockets servers.

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